| In classical
music the technical excises an technical compositions help to improve
voice quality. South Indian Music consists of two branches of music
the Kalpita Sangita(musical compositions) and Manodharma Sangeetha
.A performer should be adept in both of these branches
It is needless to say that the existing traditional practice helps
to acquire the above-mentioned vocal attributes. These exercises also
form the basis for the musical skill.
Also this training should starts by at the age of six or seven, at
this period the muscles are supple and flexible.
The training is the first imparted to sustain
on a note for a long period without any Kattai.
For this uses the notes MadhyaShadja Madhya Panchama and Tara Shadja.
These notes are sung in ascending order and then in descending order.
The next scale exercises are taught _Sarali Varisa. This scale
excise us set in Mayamalavagoula . This scale familiarizes the singer
with the three types of intervals – Semi tone( DviSruti) that
occurs between Ga and Ma and Between Ni and Sa. Major Tone (Chatusruti
) occurs between Ri and Ga and between Da and Ni.
In practical the sarali Varis are first taught plainly without an
Gamakas and after the Sthana’s are perfected with the singing
of plain (suddha) notes, the Gamakas are attempted.
After Sarali Varisa pupil taught the Tarasthayi. This excise is
to widen the range of the voice in the high octave . A voice is
described musically sweet and rich only when accuracy in tone production
is achieve even in the high octave. This exercise is also composed
in the raga Mayamalavagoula and adi tala also note that this will
be practiced in three degree of speed.
For the command verve in voice quality the Janta Varisa are prescribed.
These Janta Varisa also train the singer to produce the Gamakas
Tiripa or Nokku and Sphurita. It is essential that the voice should
produce the different types of graces used in South Indian classical
Dattu Varisas to train the voice to produce the intermittent intervals
The Tarastayi Varisa, Janta Varisa and Dattu Varisa are set in Adi
The next exercise Sapta tala Alanakaras are set in seven different
Suladi Talas and set in the raga Mayamalavaguala .
The word Alanakaras means ornamentation (literally). This exercises
prepares the student to sing the technical compositions properly
by making the voice fit to produce different Swara combinations.
The Alanakaras which are used for practice are mentioned in the
1. Chaturasra Jathi Dhurva Tala
2. Chaturasra Jathi Madya Tala
3. Chaturasra Jathi Rupaka Tala
4. Mishra Jathi Jampa Tala
5. Trisra jathi Triputa Tala
6. Kanda Jathi Ata Tala
7. Chathurasra Jathi Eka Tala
This Vocalization practice known as “Akara Sadakam”.
Singing of vowel Ah helps to develop a bright tone as this vowel
opens the throat and widens the mouth capacity and thereby aids
to achieve a throated rich voice The EE, Eh, Oo and Oh are taught
for vocalization practice.
The Vowel Eh puts the tone forward to the front part of palate and
teeth and hereby brings clarity to the tone. An antidote for forced
and harsh tone is the practice on the vowel OO which gives forth
the forward resonance. To Achieve a round open tone vocalization
the vowel O H is practiced without the muscular tension of the jaw
and neck which the singer is very often tempted to get in producing
this vowel. In this vowel Ah is given more importance and it will
carried over to other vowel EE. EH, OO and OH.
In addition to Vocalization exercise the student is asked to practice
on the consonant “M” which gives the voice richness.
The reason for the choice of Mayamalava gula Raga for the preliminary
exercise by the Great Purandaradasa as this scale facilitate the
rendering of Kampita Gamaksa and helps to train the voice of the
child of ten years to render the Kampita Gamakas more easily.
The musical compositions, which serve the technical purpose, are
classified into technical compositions. Gitas, SwaraJathi and Varans
are classified in this group. These Lessons will help to master
the difficult and elaborate melodic compositions.
Among the technical group Gitam, latterly means a song. Gitam series
set in very simple and without much ornamentation, and will help
the student to master perfectly.
Gitam should practice in medium temp which give dynamism to the
voice. The Pillayar Gitam of The Great Composer Purandara Dasa is
common Gita to start with
The Swara Jathi is act as a stepping Stone for the learning of
the Varanam This type of compositions have Swara and Sahithya part
and divided into Pallavi, Anupallavi and Charanam( may be more than
Two ) Only simple SwaraJathis are taught to the beginner. The three
Swarajatii of Shyma Sastri in the Raga Thodi, Bhairavi and YadhukulaKambodhi
which are composed very high style are taught only after the voice
is under the control of the performer
“The Thanavarnam” are taught after Swarajathis . Varna
is the last form among the technical group of composition but stands
first for its technical excises The rareness of words, wide range
profusion of vowel extension and the use of various type of Gamakas
help the singer to acquire the vocal attributes steadiness, continuity
and ability to execute the different Gamakas in the proper manner.
The vowels should not be changed in any way as Ah, Ai, or Au while
extending the vowels in the Varna lesion. Varna help more to acquire
a good voice as the profession a wide range is one of the essential
factors of a good voice. Among famous sixty Varna Two Varna exceed
two complete octaves, 17 have two complete octaves, 15 have one
octave and seven tones, 16 have one octave and six tones 8 have
one octave and five tones, 2 have one octave and four tones.
The practice of Varna is very necessary for a singer as it trans
the laryngeal muscles to produce the different Gamakas. The two
types of Varnas are “Tana Varnas”and musicians take
up “Pada Varnas” former for practice while dancers prefer
Musical skill includes ability in rhythm and melody. The technical
exercises and technical compositions impart the knowledge of Tala.
When they are rendered by doubling the speed in four degrees or
three degrees or sometimes with two degrees of speed
Sense of Sruti is acquired from the very 1st Lesion ( ‘Sa’
The Mastering of enormous melodic composition only enable the singer
to be proficient in the branch of Manodharam Sangeetha that proves
the musical ability of a Singer.